DIABETES: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE CHRONIC DISEASE ?

Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves

About 422 million people worldwide have diabetes, the majority living in low-and middle-income countries, and 1.6 million deaths are directly attributed to diabetes each year. Both the number of cases and the prevalence of diabetes have been steadily increasing over the past few decades. 

The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. With diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does make.

LET’S LOOK AT THE TYPES IF DIABETES ?

  • Type 1 diabetes: This type is an autoimmune disease, meaning your body attacks itself. In this case, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are destroyed. Up to 10% of people who have diabetes have Type 1. It’s usually diagnosed in children and young adults (but can develop at any age). It was once better known as “juvenile” diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day. This is why it is also called insulin-dependent diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes: With this type, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or your body’s cells don’t respond normally to the insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes. Up to 95% of people with diabetes have Type 2. It usually occurs in middle-aged and older people. Other common names for Type 2 include adult-onset diabetes and insulin-resistant diabetes. Your parents or grandparents may have called it “having a touch of sugar.”
  • Prediabetes: This type is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes: This type develops in some women during their pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy. However, if you have gestational diabetes you’re at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later on in life.

Less common types of diabetes include:

  • Monogenic diabetes syndromes: These are rare inherited forms of diabetes accounting for up to 4% of all cases. Examples are neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young.
  • Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: This is a form of diabetes specific to people with this disease.
  • Drug or chemical-induced diabetes: Examples of this type happen after organ transplant, following HIV/AIDS treatment or are associated with glucocorticoid steroid use.

Diabetes insipidus is a distinct rare condition that causes your kidneys to produce a large amount of urine.

SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES

Diabetes symptoms are caused by rising blood sugar.

General symptoms

The general symptoms of diabetes include:

Symptoms in men

In addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have a decreased sex driveerectile dysfunction (ED), and poor muscle strength.

Symptoms in women

Women with diabetes can also have symptoms such as urinary tract infectionsyeast infections, and dry, itchy skin.

Type 1 diabetes

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can include:

  • extreme hunger
  • increased thirst
  • unintentional weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • blurry vision
  • tiredness

It may also result in mood changes.

Type 2 diabetes

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can include:

  • increased hunger
  • increased thirst
  • increased urination
  • blurry vision
  • tiredness
  • sores that are slow to heal

It may also cause recurring infections. This is because elevated glucose levels make it harder for the body to heal.

Gestational diabetes

Most women with gestational diabetes don’t have any symptoms. The condition is often detected during a routine blood sugar test or oral glucose tolerance test that is usually performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of gestation.

In rare cases, a woman with gestational diabetes will also experience increased thirst or urination.

Causes of Diabetes

Diabetes causes vary depending on your genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health and environmental factors. There is no common diabetes cause that fits every type of diabetes as the causes of diabetes vary depending on the individual and the type.

For instance; the causes of type 1 diabetes vary considerably from the causes of gestational diabetes. Similarly, the causes of type 2 diabetes are distinct from the causes of type 1 diabetes. In fact, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes causes are very different. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the pancreas cannot produce insulin, whereas type 2 diabetes is the body’s resistance to insulin

Type 1 diabetes causes

Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving the body without enough insulin to function normally.

This is called an autoimmune reaction, or autoimmune cause, because the body is attacking itself.

There is no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved:

  • Viral or bacterial infection
  • Chemical toxins within food
  • Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction

Underlying genetic disposition may also be a type 1 diabetes cause.

Type 2 diabetes causes

Type 2 diabetes causes are usually multifactorial – more than one diabetes cause is involved. Often, the most overwhelming factor is a family history of type 2 diabetes.

This is the most likely type 2 diabetes cause.

There are a variety of risk factors for type 2 diabetes, any or all of which increase the chances of developing the condition.

These include:

  • Obesity
  • Living a sedentary lifestyle
  • Increasing age
  • Bad diet

Other type 2 diabetes causes such as pregnancy or illness can be type 2 diabetes risk factors.

Gestational diabetes causes

The causes of diabetes in pregnancy also known as gestational diabetes remain unknown. However, there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of developing this condition:

  • Family history of gestational diabetes
  • Overweight or obese
  • Suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Have had a large baby weighing over 9lb

Causes of gestational diabetes may also be related to ethnicity – some ethnic groups have a higher risk of gestational diabetes.

Other diabetes causes

There are a variety of other potential diabetes causes. These include the following:

  • Pancreatitis or pancreatectomy as a cause of diabetes. Pancreatitis is known to increase the risk of developing diabetes, as is a pancreatectomy.
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). One of the root causes of PCOS is obesity-linked insulin resistance, which may also increase the risk of pre-diabetes and type 12 diabetes.
  • Cushing’s syndrome. This syndrome increases production of the cortisol hormone, which serves to increased blood glucose levels An over-abundance of cortisol can cause diabetes.
  • Glucagonoma. Patients with glucagonoma may experience diabetes because of a lack of equilibrium between levels of insulin production and glucagon production.
  • Steroid induced diabetes (steroid diabetes) is a rare form of diabetes that occurs due to prolonged use of glucocorticoid therapy.
  • reventive measures of DIABETES that you have to consider.

Changing your lifestyle could be a big step toward diabetes prevention — and it’s never too late to start. Consider these tips.

Lifestyle changes can help prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease. Prevention is especially important if you’re currently at an increased risk of type 2 diabetes because of excess weight or obesity, high cholesterol, or a family history of diabetes

  1. Cut Sugar and Refined Carbs From Your Diet.
  2. Work Out Regularly.
  3. Drink Water as Your Primary Beverage.
  4. Lose Weight If You’re Overweight or Obese.
  5. Quit Smoking.
  6. Follow a Very-Low-Carb Diet.
  7. Watch Portion Sizes.
  8. Avoid Sedentary.
  9. Eat more vegetables.
  10. Take more organic fruits.

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